There is a long and unresolved Israeli-Palestinian conflict between the two countries in the heart of the Middle East. For more than a century, Jews and Arabs have been at loggerheads over who owns the land between Jordan and the Mediterranean. Israel has suffered a series of devastating defeats against the Palestinians since independence in 1948 and has now occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip, for half a century, leading to systematic human rights violations against living Palestinians there.
On Saturday, Israeli airstrikes in the heart of Gaza City destroyed three buildings, killing at least 26 people. It is the deadliest attack since heavy fighting broke out almost a week ago.
Latest Analysis of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Dozens of more airstrikes were carried out on Sunday and a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad group was allegedly killed in Gaza.
What Caused the Current Violence?
Tensions escalated in Jerusalem during Ramadan. The Palestinians said Israeli police imposed unnecessarily strict restrictions on them during their fast-paced time, including preventing them from gathering on the steps outside the Old City to pray, as they traditionally did. So, persistent Israeli police targeting the Palestinians resulted in the use of CS gas and stun grenades at the Al-Aqsa Mosque, a sacred site for Muslims and Jews. Palestinians have also been threatened with deportation from their homes in Sheikh Jarrah, a Palestinian area outside the ancient city walls, with land and property claimed by groups of Jewish settlers in Israeli courts.
On Monday, Hamas issued an ultimatum to Israel to withdraw its forces from al-Aqsa and Sheikh Jarrah and then fire rockets at Jerusalem.
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: a Chronology
May 1948: Britain gains control of Palestine after World War II and the Council of the Jewish People declares the founding of the State of Israel. Palestinians protest and the armed conflict begins. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians become refugees.
1949 – Then, Israel signs a ceasefire agreement with neighboring Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.
The 1950s: Regular fighting kills hundreds of people on both sides. The Suez Crisis begins in 1956: an invasion of Egypt, Israel, and France in Egypt in an attempt to regain control of the Suez Canal. In 1957, Israel withdrew its armed forces after Egypt assured the country of unlimited navigation and security.
Then, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded in Cairo by the Arab League. It declares that the aim is to destroy the state of Israel through armed struggle and replace it with an “independent Palestinian state” between Jordan and the Mediterranean.
June 1967 – The Six-Day War begins when Israel launches an airstrike on the Egyptian air force. Israel defeats pro-Palestinian forces and conquers the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Up to 25,000 people die and 250,000 Palestinians are displaced from their homes.
September 1972 – Then, the Palestinian militant group Black September leads the massacre in Munich, an attack on Israeli Olympians that kills two people and injures nine others. This is one of many such attacks in the early 1970s.
October 1974 – The UN General Assembly recognizes the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and has the right to participate in the discussion on Palestine.
March 1978: Israel launches Operation Litani, a seven-day invasion of Lebanon that kills between 100,000 and 285,000 refugees and kills between 300 and 1,200 Lebanese and Palestinian militants and civilians.
1987-1993 (The First Intifada)
Then, an ongoing series of Palestinian protests and violent riots against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza in response to an Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) truck that collided with a civilian car and killed four Palestinian workers. . An estimated 1162 to 1204 Palestinians were killed in action with the IDF over six years, along with 100 Israeli civilians and 60 IDF members. The Palestinian militant group Hamas founded at this time and started the suicide bombings.
September 1993: Israel and the PLO sign the Oslo peace agreement and end the first Intifada. But attacks from both sides continued into the 1990s, killing hundreds.
2000-2005 (Al-Aqsa Intifada)
The second Intifada begins after a final agreement on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. It was not reached at the Camp David summit in 2000. It was carried out by Israeli leader Ariel Sharon on an extremely provocative visit to Muslims. Tempelberget. Start demos. These protests escalate into war, with Israeli forces responding with tanks and airstrikes. In 2001, Hamas began firing rockets into Israeli territory. Moreover, Abu Ali Mustafa was the Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. An Israeli missile killed him, in the same year. In total, Israeli missiles killed about 3,000 Palestinians, 1,000 Israelis, and 64 foreigners.
The Sharm el-Sheikh summit concludes the second intifada. Both sides agree to withdraw. Israel agrees to withdraw from the cities of the West Bank occupied during the Intifada.
Then, Hamas wins the Palestinian elections in 2006 with a narrow gap. It forces the United States and the European Union to stop aid and regard the party as a terrorist organization.
Hamas announces a 16-month ceasefire. Because an explosion on a beach in the Gaza Strip killed a Palestinian family.
Since 2006 (Gaza-Israel conflict)
The conflict over the Gaza Strip, a land strip between southern Israel and Egypt, has been raging for 15 years. Hamas has often fired rockets at Israel, and Israeli forces have launched airstrikes. Israel remains an occupying power under international law. It means that it controls Gaza without any formal rights in this regard.
The situation worsens with the split of the Palestinian government in 2006 with the Fatah government in the West Bank and the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip. The Fatah government is now internationally famous as the sole representative of the Palestinian state. It does not recognize the Hamas government. Since 2006, more than 3,400 Palestinians have died and another 15,000 have been injured. About 185 Israelis died.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has repeatedly rejected the idea of a two-state solution. There seems to be no clear way to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The current struggle is among the worst in recent times.
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